would be out reiving on the night. The Grahams were guilty of treason for guiding the Scots through English ground but it worried them not. The rescue was accomplished with an ease that defied logic. A postern gate of Carlisle castle was opened from the inside by one of the friends of the English Carletons 打车忘付钱遭辱骂 北京国图发现浮尸

Arts-and-Entertainment No-one is certain of the year of the birth of William Armstrong of Kinmont. Given the events of 1596 and the probability that he was by then in late middle age, the early 1540’s could be the time that he entered this world. The year of his birth then is pure supposition. What is fact is that, in maturity, he hated most of the English whose country was but a stone’s throw south of his fortified tower at Morton Rigg in the Debateable Land. If he was a boy in the middle of the 1540’s then he would remember the hatred of Henry V111 that spawned what is now known as the ‘Rough Wooing’, a time when the Border country of Scotland was subject to the insane reprisals of the English king, thwarted in his plans to unite England and Scotland with the marriage of his son to the girl who would become Mary, Queen of Scots. Again in the early 1570’s, as a young man, he would witness the culling of the people of the Scottish Borders as the English sought out the whereabouts of the English northern earls who had risen in rebellion for the sake of their Catholic religion. The succour provided by the Scottish Clan of Armstrong would have severe repercussions on the whole of the Scottish Border folk. ‘Put all to the sword’ were Henry’s words. Kinmont had every right to hate the English, but unlike most of his countrymen who suffered in silence or futile thoughts of revenge, he took action and became a thorn in the side of English Border authority. By the 1580’s he was enemy number one to the Scrope’s, Henry and Thomas, English West March Wardens from 1561 to 1603. Kinmont’s endless raids into England and his ability to evade capture became a stinging embarrassment to the English whose relentless endeavours to end his reign of dominance failed whatever plan was concocted to corner and apprehend him. Kinmont raided Tarset in Tynedale, Northumberland on more than one occasion and was party, in these particularly vicious forays, to the murder of many men. One of these raids, in 1593, was carried out in daylight and contained over a thousand southern Scots. The product of the ‘reive’ in Tarset was a thousand sheep and a thousand cattle;the Hunters and Milburns were outnumbered and offered little resistance. The ‘Day of Truce’ at the Dayholme of Kershope In March 1596 a ‘Day of Truce’ was held near Kershopefoot on the Borders of England and Scotland. It was a day purportedly to be held at monthly intervals in each of the East, Middle and West Marches, when felons were brought to the very Border Line to answer for their crimes. Many men, both English and Scottish were asked to attend to witness that the proceedings were both fair and upheld the spirit and principle of the Border Law. All who attended were granted safe conduct whilst the Truce lasted. This was known as the ‘Assurance of the Truce’. This measure was necessary as both the Scots and English invited to attend might, outside of the Truce, be at feud or deadly enemies of each other. Many a man was uneasy, scornful or resentful as he viewed neighbours with whom he was at feud. Feud, in the words of James V1 of Scotland, was the ‘canker’ of the Borders. Theft of cattle and sheep and ‘insight’ i.e. household and farming goods, were the most common reasons for trial but murder, the result of constant feud and searing animosity against neighbour or enemy across the Border Line was ever present. Murder was the inevitable outcome of the hatred that hardened in men’s hearts and led to a desire for revenge which no authority could stamp out. The feuding often lasted over many a generation. Kinmont Willie is present at the Truce Day Kinmont Willie was called by the Keeper of Liddesdale, Sir Walter Scott of Branxholme and Buccleuch, to attend the ‘Day of Truce’ for the Scots. At the end of the ‘Day of Truce’, which had ejnded without incident, the Deputy Wardens embraced, satisfied that justice was equal to both sides. When the proceedings were over, just before sunset, both English and Scottish parties began to make their way home. The safe conduct or ‘Assurance’ of the Truce usually lasted until the following dawn so that all who had attended would be able to make their way home in peace; confident that no enemy would attack during the evening and night-time hours. Kinmont Willie is captured by the English As Kinmont Willie rode down the Scottish bank of the river Liddel he was seen by a party of English making their way home on the opposite side of the river, down the English bank. The English could not resist their initial impulse that for once they had the great Scottish Reiver within their grasp. Safe Conduct for all conveniently forgotten, they rode hard across the river and rode down Kinmont. He was bound and taken to Carlisle castle where he was imprisoned. The War of Words leads to Stalemate When Buccleuch, Keeper of Liddesdale, learned that Kinmont Willie was in prison and taken against the honour of the ‘Assurance of the Truce’, he was infuriated. He took no time in writing to the English West March Warden, Thomas Lord Scrope demanding Kinmont’s release. Scrope, like his father before him, coveted the neck of the highly-prized Reiver at any cost and answered Buccleuch’s fury with a measured indifference and cited more than one reason why he would not comply. Even James V1 of Scotland and Elizabeth 1 of England became embroiled in the acrimonious affair. In 16th century Britain news travelled slowly and so did the petitions of Buccleuch earnestly demanding Kinmont’s release. Eventually tiring of the whole impasse, Buccleuch resolved to breach the defences of Carlisle castle and rescue Kinmont. He was heartened by the fact that he would have inside help from members of the English garrison who had tired of Thomas Lord Scrope’s dictatorial rule, as well as aid from the premier English Reiver family, the Grahams. The Scottish Rescue Party is Successful On 13th April 1596 the rescue party led by Buccleuch and consisting mainly of the Scottish Armstrongs, moved south through English territory to Carlisle adeptly aided by members of the Grahams who ensured that none of the English surnames (families) would be out reiving on the night. The Grahams were guilty of treason for guiding the Scots through English ground but it worried them not. The rescue was accomplished with an ease that defied logic. A postern gate of Carlisle castle was opened from the inside by one of the friends of the English Carletons, another family who had vowed to see the end of Thomas Lord Scrope. Having previously been told exactly where Kinmont was warded, the five of the rescue party who entered the castle, lost little time in freeing the great Scottish Reiver. The rest of Buccleuch’s rescue band remained outside the walls of the castle banging on drums, stridently blowing trumpets and making such a noise that the English garrison, already sheltering under coverlets from the veritable downpour that had lasted the whole of the night, refused to stir. They thought there was an army outside the walls. Kinmont was soon in hiding in the valley of the Ewes, north of Langholm. The Aftermath Elizabeth 1 was incandescent when she received the news of the rescue. How dare any Scot attack one of her premier Border fortresses when peace existed between the two countries? The diplomatic wrangle between various ambassadors and the two monarchs went on for over a year. Elizabeth l demanded that Buccleuch should be handed over to England for orchestrating the rescue whilst James Vl, fearful of losing the support of his aristocracy, was reluctant to do so. Thomas Lord Scrope was adamant that the English Grahams should be punished with the full harshness of the law for their treason and complained that should they not be, they would rule in the English West March, not the Warden or the English government. Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch was eventually handed over to the English and warded in Berwick but no action was taken against him. As was usual in the Borders of the times, eventually the heat went out of the situation but not before the strained allegiance between England and Scotland was once more severely tested. Kinmont Willie? He lived to reive another day and died in peace in his bed in about 1603. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: